Saturday, July 25, 2020

10 Ways to Become a Better Conversationalist

10 Ways to Become a Better Conversationalist You always have conversations. Right?But just what kind of conversations do you have? Of what quality are they?You go through an experience and you want to share it with someone. You get lonely and you want to spend time with someone. The first people you think of are your friends. Maybe your spouse or children. People you have a connection with.Why?These people make you feel good and life becomes better when they are around.You even wish you always had them around you at all times.Some people are better than others. They really brighten you up. Talking with them easily makes you happy and you enjoy the time spent together.But not so with others.There are those you would rather stay away from when you are not in your best moods.Any talk with them may as well make things worse for you. They are still around you anyway and you cannot wish them away.But you can avoid talking with them.And that is what you do.But have you considered what others think of talking with you?You talk to some people and you enjoy the time. But do all the people you talk with enjoy your company?Just as you don’t like conversing with some people, is it possible that some people don’t like conversing with you? Could it be that they are just acting polite by not walking away from you?If the answer is yes, then it could be a very saddening revelation. You would probably not want to believe it as true.This is because it hurts your sense of pride. Everyone has a sense of pride. It is what makes us love ourselves. It gives us confidence. Confidence, not arrogance.Conversations are a normal part of the human life. Human beings are social in nature and will always prefer living and operating around others like them. The human life is built around communities. Communities of people with common backgrounds or interests.Don’t we talk about the Christian community, Muslim community, the legal fraternity, even an online community? Not to mention that the online community is virtual. But it still exists and we passionately identify ourselves with it.No matter how advanced technology becomes, the community setup cannot end.With the high number of digital communication channels, face-to-face interactions are reducing by the day. People are now more likely to text their messages rather than meet and talk. Chat messages are becoming the more common way of communication.Is it just an issue of convenience?Well, there is definitely convenience being achieved but is there something being lost?Yes, there is.Human relations are becoming less authentic. Be it personal relationships or businesses interacting with their customers, conversations are losing the human touch.This is all in an effort to enhance productivity. We want to be able to do more in less time. Whereas this is a good thing to strive for, it would be best to seek out a balance. Balancing the traditional and modern modes of conversing.ARE PEOPLE INTERESTED IN CONVERSING WITH YOU?Being a good conversationalist can be an a rt that you need to learn.But it could also be an art that you excelled in only that technology taught you otherwise.How can you tell whether you have lost the art of making good conversations? Could it be that you didn’t have it in the first place? Maybe due to being born and brought up in the midst of technology?Here are some things you can check to find out whether people want to be in a conversation with you.Are they responding with only ‘Yes’ or ‘No?’This is one sure way of knowing whether the people you’re talking with are interested in talking.When they respond to your questions with these short words and add nothing else, take note. They are simply saying that they don’t want to push the conversation further. If they were interested in the conversation, they would give an answer that opens them up for more talking.For example, you could say to someone “It’s pretty hot today. Are you feeling it?” If his only response is “Yes” or “Sure,” then check how you progress. On the other hand, if he says something like “Yeah, I’ve been drinking cold water since morning to cool myself down,” then you know the conversation can continue.You can pick something from that response to push the conversation further.When gauging people’s interest in a conversation using this method, don’t use only one question.People could just be indicating a lack of interest in the current subject. Change the subject and see what their response is like. If you know some of their interest, engage them on those. If their response is cold, then you have a big clue. Politely excuse yourself and look for someone else to converse with.Are they asking you questions?When in a conversation with someone, you will mostly be speaking about yourself. The other person will then be listening and there is a way of knowing if he is interested.Asking questions helps you know more about a topic. When you encounter an interesting subject and you want to know more about it, you ask questions. Questions indicate that you are willing to spend more time learning.When you are talking with someone and he finds you to be interesting, he will naturally want to know more about you. If not you, then the subject you are talking about, which will lead him back to you. If he is not asking you questions, he is indicating a lack of interest.Continuing to talk with such a person is not going to change things. Instead, you will start becoming a real bother to them. The wisest thing to do is just leave them.Are they telling you about themselves?Conversations are two-way. There is no way one person will talk while others are silently listening throughout. There has to be responses coming from those listening. Everyone has something to talk about. It may not be much but there is definitely something to talk about.If you are telling someone about yourself but he is not doing the same, consider killing the conversation. If someone is not talking to you about himself, he doesn’t want you to know him.He is therefore willing to maintain silence so that everyone keeps to himself. Persisting in such a conversation will wear you out and make you a nuisance to the other person.This does not necessarily mean that you are the problem. The other person might be having personal reasons why he doesn’t want to engage in a conversation.Are they laughing at your jokes and stories?Jokes offer a great way of easing the tension between people or just getting someone to be more engaged.This is why public speakers always use them. You don’t have to be a talented comedian to tell funny jokes and stories.When someone finds you interesting, he opens himself up to be wowed by you.The smallest of funny stories regarding your childhood will be received with much liking.The jokes and stories you tell are simply narrations of your past experiences. Whether you are a good story teller or not, past experiences are usually funny since most of them paint you in cumbersom e situations.These are the kind of things you recall when talking with your childhood friends when going through your pasts.If the person you’re talking with isn’t finding your stories and jokes worth laughing at, then he is not interested in the conversation. Maybe he has a different background, different interests or lacks a sense of humor.Either way, it will be a tall order for you to make the conversation last.Do people get in touch after your first conversation?Conversations will end and you will part ways. The real test of the conversation’s success is the follow-up meeting. The person you met and talked with may call you after two weeks and request a meeting. This is a great sign that the conversation was interesting to him.If on the other hand, you are forgotten as soon as you part ways, then the conversation was not interesting. It is just like what happens to salesmen all over the world.They pitch to potential customers and at times, can only leave hoping to receive calls from them. If the customer was interested, there would be a call. If not, then no call would be coming.If you have experienced any of the above, then you have come to the right place.This article will teach you how to become better in conversations.10 WAYS TO BECOME A BETTER CONVERSATIONALISTHaving a good conversation is critical for everyone.You will feel the need for it especially when you are in the midst of strangers. You will be attending conferences, birthday parties, networking events, seminars etc.If things work well for you, you will find two or three people you already know.But those people also know others and they want to catch up with them. You are not going to spend all the time with them.So what do you do? You have to make new friends.Below you will get to know 10 simple ways which will help you become better in conversations. Start practicing these today and you will soon realize that starting and sustaining conversations is easy.Tip: You don’t have to be the one starting all conversations. If you however are in a networking meeting, rev up your confidence and approach someone for a conversation. If it’s not a networking meeting but there are people around you, go ahead and start the conversation.Below are the 10 ways to become a better conversationalist.Be yourselfThis is the most basic aspect of honesty. Still, some people prefer to stay away from it. Watch the below video to learn the importance of knowing and being yourself. With the widely-accepted philosophy of ‘fake it till you make it,’ many people lie about many things. Including their identity and personalities. This is the worst thing you can do when engaging in a conversation. You may gain someone’s trust quickly. You however start working to maintain the lie you built. Eventually, you will stand to lose the trust and friendship as you earn a tarnished name.Everyone is different in a unique way and you need to embrace that. What makes a conversation interesting is th e difference in thoughts, experiences, life visions etc.If you constantly seek to be like someone else in order to be interesting in a conversation, you will certainly not go very far. There will soon be a disconnect showing. You also stand the danger of forgetting the show you put up last time so as to support it further.Normal conversations are supposed to be easy-flowing and natural. This can only happen when you are being yourself. What are your likes? Which college did you attend? Which sport do you like?When you are yourself, it is easy to keep a conversation going without struggling. You are simply operating in the area of your expertise. Aren’t you an expert in yourself? Your words will also be consistent regardless of the situations you are explaining.Be genuinely interestedImagine what it could be like for someone to engage you in a conversation about your favorite subject.Be it holiday destinations, cars, fashion, movies etc. You could easily talk for hours. Why? Becaus e the person has shown interest in what you love. Whatever it is that you love, it forms a part of you. When someone wants to know a part of you, he essentially wants to know you. This makes you feel important to that person.When you show interest in someone, they tend to tell you more about themselves. This is important because all humans are always looking for someone to talk to. Even those who are introverted by nature. These mostly keep to themselves because they feel there is something inside them that’s not understandable by many. When they find someone who understands them however, they share deeply-personal things about themselves.Eventually, you will stand out in their lives as one who is likable because they can talk with you about themselves.Give and takeConversations are talks between two or more people. If you’re the only one talking, then you’re giving a lecture. If giving a lecture during a conversation, the other person is bound to lose interest and switch off. Giving and taking in a conversation is all about not talking too much. You should let the other person also speak.You may have a very interesting subject to discuss. Unfortunately for you, that does not guarantee that you will make an interesting conversation.The other person may also have something to say about it. If you dominate the conversation, even if you are an expert, you will cease being exciting.Ensure you let the other person talk too. Listen to their opinion, thoughts or knowledge then proceed on the common ground.Ask open-ended questionsAlways ask questions. Questions indicate that you want to know more. They show that you are interested in the life of the other person. This helps the conversation flow as someone opens up to you.All the same, you also need to be careful with questions. Do not ask probing questions. True, questions are meant to probe. It however matters how you ask them.Avoid asking questions like “Were you angry about that?” or “Did that make you uncomfortable?” Such questions are likely to attract monosyllabic responses. The person you are talking with may find this a quick way of disengaging from the conversation.Instead, ask open-ended questions like “How did you feel?” or “What was the experience like?” Such questions cannot be answered by a simple ‘Yes’ or ’No’ response. These will force the answer to be an explanation.This is exactly what you want so that the conversation flows. As they explain their feeling, let your interest show. Take their facial expressions and the changes in the tone of their voice as cues. These will provide for a natural way of progressing with the conversation.From the cues you have, ask follow-up questions or make follow-up comments. When responding to their explanations, both follow-up questions and comments can work.You however need to be more careful with the comments. Just like the questions, ensure they leave room for responses.For example, an answer to your question ma y be, “It felt so lonely being in that room all by myself. Everyone had left and I had to wait for two hours.” A good follow-up comment would be “Two hours? That must have felt like eternity.”This comment indirectly asks whether they felt like it was eternity. Note that the response only expressed the feeling of loneliness in an empty room. You are now building on the duration of loneliness.Alternatively, you can ask “Two hours? Why didn’t you go out even for a short walk?” At this, you can expect a response as to why there was a willingness to sit down in a room for two hours.As you ask questions, keep the tone of your voice in check and use your facial expressions accordingly.Focus on the conversationWhenever you are conversing with someone, you have to focus on the conversation. Whether it is your friend or someone you just met, this is very important.Although your friends might accommodate a bit of lack of focus from you, someone you’ve just met won’t. Someone you are meeting for the first time will interpret that as showing a lack of interest. It is also disrespectful. This will not earn you the marks you are looking for.Focusing on the conversation has to do with being attentive, responding accordingly and keeping distractions away. One of the biggest distractions is your mobile phone. In this digital age where you can conduct business from anywhere, you can receive email alerts at any time.More than that, you may remember that you needed to send a sales quotation to one of your clients.As much as this can be understandable, you cannot afford to make this a habit. The easiest way to avoid this is ensuring your phone’s alerts have no sound or vibration. Setting your phone to ‘silent mode’ shows the importance you place on your conversation.You will then be able to concentrate on what the other person is talking about.Do not argueConversations are all about sharing thoughts and opinions in a friendly environment. When someone tells you their thoughts about something, don’t rush to prove them wrong. Even if you are an expert and know better.In fact, such ‘correction’ will not be appreciated. The other person has not contracted you as his adviser. You are just supposed to know his opinion and share yours.While sharing your opinions, do not be authoritative or forceful. That is not friendly yet you intend to form friendship. You should be accommodative of their ideas and opinions. If the person is very wrong and you feel the need to correct them, then do so politely and wisely.You can start by asking them a question so you can understand the reason they hold the opinions they have. With that understanding, you will be able to know how best to make sense to them.Related to arguing is being judgmental. This is fatal to any conversation. Indeed it can even kill already-established friendships. When you become judgmental towards others, you are taking a higher position while lowering them. You are essentially t elling them how wrong they are and they need correction.Judging others also tells them that whatever they say to you, you are going to be examining it for mistakes.Since you are likely to find mistakes, people will be apprehensive to talk with you. Others will just not know what to say that is not contrary to your opinion.For this reason, they might prefer staying away from you.Give complimentsWe all like to be complimented, especially when we do something praiseworthy. This appreciation will make the person you are complimenting open up to you.It breaks some walls as the person sees you as keen enough to notice something good about them. Compliments are powerful tools that make people feel good about themselves.In a conversation setting, giving a compliment makes the person you’re talking with happy. They will then tell you more about themselves because happy people tend to talk more.Recognize their voices and ask them whether they sing in the choir. Appreciate the jokes they tel l and ask whether they are comedians. Such compliments go a long way in raising someone’s hopes and confidence.Since you make them feel appreciated, they will want to spend more time with you. They will also want to be more friendly towards you.Tell storiesAlways tell stories in the course of your conversations. As much as you may be trying to have a conversation with a stranger, just think of him as a friend. This way, it is easier to talk freely. Don’t you find it easy telling your friends stories about your life?Do not strive to tell stories which will be interesting. Story telling is easy and can flow very naturally. Keep the stories relevant to the subject of discussion.Are you talking about animals?Then tell a story about what happened when you slept with your cat in your bed. Have you had a hunting dog before? You can share some stories about the adventures. Did you maybe live in an area infested by snakes and you got attacked severally? Share some of the experiences.Thro ughout your story telling, gauge the interest levels in the person you are talking with. This will help you know whether to continue or change the subject. At the same time, remember that it’s a conversation. You should allow the person you’re talking with to interject and ask questions or make comments.If the person offers a story of his own, let yours die away and listen to his. Show genuine interest and be open to humor. Shared laughter goes a long way in building great friendships.Listen, listen, listenHave you ever tried talking to someone who is ignoring you? You definitely didn’t like it. You probably regretted getting into the conversation in the first place.When having a conversation with someone, the best thing you can do for both of you is listen to him. This not only shows that you are interested, it also creates room for a connection. Listening to someone talk enables you understand him.When he feels understood, he is ready to reciprocate. As you have understood h im, he will also want to understand you. This is how friendships are made. Not necessarily because two people share all the same values.The below video teaches some basic yet important tips on how to become a better listener. Watch it then read on to learn how listening impacts your conversations. It is important to note that listening is not for the purposes of replying correctly.You are listening to understand the other person. A common mistake many people make when trying to have a conversation is seeking to reply.This is as a result of focusing on the need for the conversation to flow. Do not burden yourself with the responsibility of keeping the conversation flowing.Conversations should not be mechanical. They don’t have to be predictable in their flows. Just allow yourself to go with the flow of things.Listening ranks very highly as one of the skills vital for communication. Learn how to listen and you will have better connections with the people you converse with.Listening is tied to the innate need to be heard and understood. When you listen to someone, you give him an opportunity to express himself and be understood. This touches them at the core.“Sometimes all a person wants is an empathetic ear; all he or she needs is to talk it out. Just offering a listening ear and an understanding heart for his or her suffering can be a big comfort.”  Roy T. BennettWhen you listen to people and understand their point of view, you are more likely to be sensitive to their opinions. This is what makes them want to talk with you more.Remember that you cannot say that you’re a good conversationalist unless people have said it about you.Since it is people who will say it, then let them be wowed by your ability to understand them then they will qualify you as such.Use non-verbal communication skillsNon-verbal communication is that which is not through spoken words. Communication does not happen only when you speak. In fact, non-verbal communication has a greate r impact than verbal.Primarily, this is communication through other parts of your body other than your mouth. This is why it is referred to as body language. This means that your body speaks. More correctly, your body helps you speak.Isn’t it said that actions speak louder than words? Non-verbal communication in most cases will reveal the truth that is hidden on the inside.For example, on a chilly morning you might say that you are doing well. Unexpectedly, your body shivers slightly and this is seen by the person you’re talking with. Would they believe your words or what your body communicated?When having conversations, make use of your hands, face, shoulders or any other body part as necessary. Non-verbal communication helps clarify what you are saying. An added benefit is that because people are visual, they may remember you from the actions you showed more than the words you spoke.You may for instance give a story about your pet and make sounds similar to those it makes. The person you’re talking with may remember these sounds more than anything else.This may be what pulls his attention to you for further engagement. Therefore, the sound you made made you memorable and that is a good thing. It interested the person you were talking with, giving you a better chance to talk with him again in the future.Body language also helps break the monotony of speaking. When you use words only, you are likely to become boring more quickly than when including body language. You cannot communicate effectively without the use of non-verbal communication.CONCLUSIONConversations are an everyday thing. They fill your life every day. At the grocery store, workplace, gas station and everywhere else you go. As long as you meet someone or some people, you will very likely have a conversation.Becoming a better conversationalist is not a difficult thing. As with all other things to be learned, the first step is to have the right mindset. Stop thinking that conversations are d ifficult and your mind will have an easier time learning. To make it easy to start a conversation, just start talking about something that is in the environment which both of you are in.As you practice the above tips, do not be too hard on yourself. Don’t expect perfection in a single day. There is no expertise that can be developed instantly. Take your time and look at these tips as lessons. You can learn them as topics in a course.If you follow through and improve your conversational skills, you will stand a better chance of influencing others through conversations.

Friday, May 8, 2020

Ethical Issues Aclu On The Decision Making Process

Ethical Issues : ACLU When researching the decision-making processes in which organizations encounter, from large fortune 500 companies to small private businesses, organizational culture has a major emphasis on the decision-making process. According to Kurtz, during the decision-making process and everyday operations of a organization, many ethical decisions which would be unacceptable in our society are deemed to be acceptable problem solving tactics (Kurtz, 2003). Our ethical decision-making process is put to the test when ever we face an issue that relates to social injustice within our society. Researchers have analyzed that when organizations face critical times and require the use of problem solving tactics, many professionals†¦show more content†¦Code of Conducts can be constructed and tailored to specific situations which may arise within various types of organizations. According to Cooper, codes are particular to the type of audience and laws are more universal and inclusive(Cooper, 201 2). ACLU: Key Ethical Challenges For centuries within our country the argument of ethics and morality has been in the forefront for many of the key law making decisions within our country. Cooper defined ethics as the examination and analysis of the logic, values, beliefs, and principles that are used to justify morality in its various forms (Cooper, 2012). Within many organizations from small private businesses to large corporations, ethical framework is in place as a framework to guide how each organization conducts business. The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) has tackled numerous ethical issues which have challenged the matter of freedom, human rights, and equality. One of the freedoms in which the ACLU has fought for is for the women to have the right to reproductive freedom. In the argument of pro-life it is said that the fetus has a right to life and the pregnant mother has an obligation to the fetus (Kaposy,2014). In the argument of pro-choice the decision of an abortion is left unto the choice of pregnant women, and that what happens to their body is their body is their choice (Kaposy, 2012). Within the argument of

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Theory Free Essays

Very much like the author of a book is given credit as its sole creator, auteur theory gives the film director credit for authoring the film, â€Å"imprinting it with his personal vision†(goodnight, 2011,sec. 7. 3,Para. We will write a custom essay sample on Theory or any similar topic only for you Order Now 1). While auteur theory is a good starting point for film analysis, it places almost total responsibility for a film’s artistic success or failure on the director. The problem is that not all film critics agree on the same definition of what is considered art. According to Andrew Saris, to be considered an auteur, a film director must qualify in three key areas: 1. Technical competence 2. Distinguishable personality and 3. Interior meaning A positive aspect about auteur theory is that directors can really make a name for themselves and become even more famous than their â€Å"Star actors†. While each of a director’s films are unique in their own way, there still remains a common and recognizable thread that runs through them collectively that says â€Å"this is a Spielberg film, or â€Å"This is a James Cameron film†. On the other side, some say that the auteur theory is too full of holes and is not a good way to determine whether a film is true art. Some directors intentionally step outside the set parameters of what is generally considered technical competence. Others insist that because film is a collaborative effort, it is not fair to esteem directors more highly than screenwriters and actors who play equally important roles in the production of a film. I would consider Clint Eastward an auteur. He began his career very young as an actor in esters movies. After 16 years of acting and learning he began directing films. Eastward became famous first as an actor in films such as â€Å"Dirty Harry’. Later on in his career, though he played significant roles in each of his films, he was more known for his directorship of films like â€Å"Grand Torsion† and â€Å"Million Dollar Baby’. According to Prep Hemmer, in these films, â€Å"Eastward shows himself as an auteur through his constant use of Juxtaposing relationships between a younger and older generation, is consistency of a tragic event occurring, bringing his films to end in a violent or tragic manner, and his choice of acting in the majority of his films as he challenges the declining role of American men†(Hemmer,n. . ). How to cite Theory, Papers

Monday, April 27, 2020

Sodium Borohydride Reduction Diphenylmethanol from Benzophenone Essay Example

Sodium Borohydride Reduction: Diphenylmethanol from Benzophenone Paper Megan Entwistle, Maria Amos, and Paul Golubic CHEM 0330 Organic Lab 1 Sodium Borohydride Reduction: Diphenylmethanol from Benzophenone 11/16/11 Introduction Redox (shorthand for REDuction-OXidation) reactions are chemical reactions in which the oxidation state (or oxidation number) of atoms has changed. Oxidation can be observed through the loss of electrons or an increase in oxidation state by an atom, ion or molecule. Reduction describes the gain of electrons or decrease in oxidation state of an atom, ion or molecule. However, there are many processes that are classed as redox even though no electron transfer occurs, for example those reactions that involves covalent bonds. Reduction reactions can be determined through three features. The first is a loss of oxygen from a bond or loss of a bond to oxygen as in the case of carbon-oxygen double bond to a carbon-oxygen single bond. The second is the addition of hydrogen to a bond and thirdly, the replacement of a more electronegative atom with carbon or hydrogen. In redox reactions, the reductant (or reducing agent) loses electrons and is oxidized while the oxidant (or oxidizing agent) gains electrons and is reduced. The reducing agent transfers electrons to another substance. The agent reduces other substances and so, the agent itself is oxidized. The reductant is also called an electron donor as it donates electrons. The electron donors can also form charge transfer complexes with electron acceptors. Examples of good reducing agents are electropositive metal elements such as lithium, sodium, iron, aluminium, zinc, iron, magnesium and carbon. We will write a custom essay sample on Sodium Borohydride Reduction: Diphenylmethanol from Benzophenone specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Sodium Borohydride Reduction: Diphenylmethanol from Benzophenone specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Sodium Borohydride Reduction: Diphenylmethanol from Benzophenone specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer These metals donate electrons readily. In organic chemistry, there are very diverse reductants. For example, in a catalytic reduction to reduce carbon-carbon double or triple bonds, the main reductant would be hydrogen gas (H2) coupled with Lindlar’s catalysts (palladium, platinum or nickel). Hydrogenation reduces most types of multiple bonds. Another method of reduction would be using hydride (H-) transfer reagents such as NaBH4 and LiAlH4 to reduce carbonyl compounds to alcohols. These transfer reagents are inorganic compounds. The LiAlH4 compound is a highly reactive, extremely powerful reducing agent. It is able to reduce the carbonyl group in aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, esters, amides, and acid halides. It reacts violently with water, alcohols, and other acidic groups with the evolution of hydrogen gas. In LiAlH4 reductions, the resulting alkoxide salts are insoluble and need to by hydrolyzed before the target alcohol product can be isolated. These reductions must be carried out under non-protic, anhydrous conditions. In NaBH4 reduction the hydroxylic solvent system achieves this hydrolysis automatically. On the other hand, NaBH4 is a less reactive and more selective reagent. It will convert aldehydes and ketones into alcohols, but it will not reduce carboxylic acids, esters, or amides. NaBH4 reacts only slowly with water and alcohols. It can be used in a wide range of solvents and is much safer to handle than LiAlH4. However by itself, NaBH4 and LiAlH4 cannot reduce carbon-carbon double or triple bonds. There are various methods of reduction. The more common ones are hydrogenation and hydride transfer reagents. Hydride is the isolated atomic hydrogen anion, H-, or any compound containing hydrogen and another more electropositive element or group. Hydride consists of a singly charged positive nucleus and two electrons of which one electron is weakly held and readily able to be donated. Hydrides are highly reactive, strongly basic and powerfully reducing in synthetic reactions. They are important reducing agents in industrial reactions though they are easily destroyed in the relatively acidic compound water (H2O). In most reactions with sodium borohydride, the aldehyde or ketone is dissolved in the reaction solvent and a solution of sodium borohydride is added, with external cooling if necessary, at a rate slow enough to keep the reaction temperature below 25 °C. Higher temperatures may decompose the hydride, and adding the carbonyl compound to the alkaline sodium borohydride solution may cause side reactions of base-sensitive substrates. The amount of solvent is not crucial, but enough should be used to completely dissolve the reactants Hydrogenation is a process that creates hydrogen bonds on carbon molecules, usually a pair of hydrogen atoms. This process is done by treating hydrogen as a reducing chemical in a chemical reaction between hydrogen and another compound. In this hydrogenation process, the chemicals are usually accompanied with a catalyst. Catalysts are very much needed in this process to make it usable, without the presence of a catalyst this chemical reaction can only be possible at very high temperatures. Thus, in a laboratory setting, it is vital to have catalysts in this reaction. In short, hydrogenation has three components, unsaturated substrate, hydrogen (mostly in gaseous state), and a catalysts. The temperature of the reaction varies depending on the substrate and the activity of the catalyst. The substrate for hydrogenation is almost always alkenes that produce saturated alkanes as the end product. This chemical process is very selective due to the steric hindrance that plays a role in determining where exactly would the hydrogen atoms be placed. There are few catalysts, namely, platinum, nickel, palladium, rhodium, and ruthenium. These are considered very active catalysts as they are able to operate at lower temperatures. Hydrogenation is a very exothermic reaction, which means a lot of heat is liberated from this chemical reaction. A more specific reduction method involves the hydride (H-) transfer reagents. This process only works for carbonyl groups. Carbonyl groups are functional groups that have a carbon atom and double-bonded oxygen attached to it (C=O). Carbonyl groups can be reduced by reacting them with hydride reagents. There are two types of hydride reagents, NaBH4 and LiAlH4. However, carbonyl can also be reduced by hydrogen as well, but with the presence of catalysts. Examples of catalysts are copper, chromite, Raney nickel, rhenium, ruthenium and rhodium. Mechanism for hydride transfer reagent: The borohydride anion delivers a hydride ion to the carbonyl compound at the same time that a proton is transferred from the solvent to the carbonyl oxygen. As the B-H bond breaks, a new bond between the boron and, the oxygen atom of the solvent is formed. An important thing to note is the hydrogen atom that ends up bonded to the carbonyl carbon comes from the NaBH4 while the hydroxyl hydrogen is derived from the solvent. Many reaction mixtures require heat in order to perform reactions at a reasonable rate. Reflux is a heating process that involves the boiling of reaction mixtures in solution. In reflux, a solvent is chosen so that its boiling point coincides with a reaction temperature that is ideal. Heating a reaction mixture to reflux assures chemists of a constant, appropriate temperature. Reflux is the process of boiling reactants while continually cooling the vapor returning it back to the flask as a liquid. It is used to heat a mixture for extended periods at certain temperatures. If the heating rate has been correctly adjusted, the liquid being heated under reflux will travel only partly up the condenser tube before condensing. Below the condensation point, the solvent will be seen running back into the flask. Above it, the condenser will be dry. The boundary between the two zones will be clearly demarcated and a reflux ring or a ring of liquid will appear there. In heating a reaction under reflux, the rate of heating should be adjusted so that the reflux ring is no higher than a third to half the distance to the top of the condenser. The temperature of a reaction in a refluxing mixture will be approximately the boiling point of the solvent used for the reaction. The purpose of reflux is to maintain a reaction temperature at the temperature of the boiling solvent and to prevent the solvent from being lost to the atmosphere. Reagent Table Name/Structure| Molar Mass (g/mol)| Density (g/mL)| Amount in lab (g or mL)| BP and/or MP (? C) | Safety| Benzophenone| 182. 217 g/mol| 1. 11| 5. 51g| BP: 305. 4 ? CMP: 47. 9 ? C| HarmfulSkin, eye and respiratory irritant. | Diphenylmethanol| 184. 23 g/mol| 1. 18| | BP: 297-298 ? CMP: 65-67 ? C| | Sodium Borohydride| 37. 83 g/mol| 1. 0740| 1. 07g| BP: 500 ? CMP: 400 ? C| Toxic by ingestion. Risk of serious internal burns if ingested. Harmful if inhaled and in contact with skin. May cause burns or severe irritation in contact with skin or eyes. | Methanol| 32. 04 g/mol| 0. 918 g/mL| 50mL| BP: 65 ? CMP: -98 ? C| Flammable, ToxicToxic by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption. May be a reproductive hazard. Ingestion may be fatal. Risk of very serious, irreversible damage if swallowed. Exposure may cause eye, kidney, heart and liver damage. Chronic or substantial acute exposure may cause serious eye damage, including blindness. Irritant. Narcotic. | Diethyl ether| 74. 12 g/mol| 0. 7134 g/mL| 150mL| BP: 34. 6 ? CMP: -116. 3 ? C| Extremely Flammable, Harmful| Anhydrous Magnesium Sulfate| 120. 366 g/mol| 2. 66| | MP: 1124 ? C| Harmful if swallowed. May cause irritation. Avoid breathing vapors, or dusts. Use with adequate ventilation. Avoid contact with eyes, skin, and clothes. Wash thoroughly after handling. Keep container closed. | Anhydrous Calcium ChlorideCaCl2| 110. 98 g/mol| 2. 15| | BP: 1935 ? CMP: 772 ? C| Irritant| 6M Hydrochloric acid| 36. 46 g/mol| | | BP: -85. 06MP: -114. 9| Poisonous and corrosive liquid. Liquid and mist will cause severe burns to all body tissue. May be fatal if swallowed or inhaled. | Water | 18. 01528| 1000 kg/m3| 30 ml| BP: 100MP: 0| N/A| Aldrich Handbook of Fine Chemicals and Laboratory Equipment, Sigma-Aldrich, 2003. ChemFinder: http://www. chemfinder. camsoft. com| Wikipedia. com| Experimental A drying tube was prepared as follows: a loose plug of cotton was placed on the bottom of the tube to keep the CaCl2 from falling into the reaction vessel; the tube was filled with anhydrous CaCl2; another plug of cotton was placed on the top and one end of the drying tube into a thermometer adapter. In a 100mL round bottom flask, 5. 51g of benzophenone was dissolved in 50mL of methanol. A few boiling stones were added and the flask was cooled on ice. 1. 7g of NaBH4 was weighed into a tarred 50mL beaker covered with a watch glass. With the flask on ice, NaBH4 was carefully transferred, in small portions, into the benzophenone solution through a funnel over a period of approximately 10 minutes. When all NaBH4 was added and H2 evolution became noticeably slower, the reflux apparatus was assembled using the longest condenser possible (Figure 1. 1). After the condenser and drying tube were properly attached, the apparatus was heated over a steam bath and refluxed for 20-30 minutes. The steam bath and the drying tube were removed from the apparatus. The reaction vessel (with condenser still attached) was cooled on ice. Through the condenser, 6mL HCl was slowly added to acidify the solution. The pH was checked with pink litmus paper and HCl was continually added until the litmus paper turned blue. The quenched reaction mixture was transferred to a 250mL Erlenmeyer flask and 50mL of diethyl ether was added. 30-50mL of water was added to dissolve the solid boric acid and/or make two distinct layers. When 2 distinct layers formed, with no solid, both layers were poured into a 500mL separatory funnel. The organic layer was isolated into another flask. Then the aqueous layer was extracted twice with 50mL portions of ether. After each extraction, the organic layer was added to the beaker for the organic layer. The combined organic layers were then washed with a 50mL portion of water and collected in an Erlenmeyer flask. The ether phase was dried with magnesium sulfate for 10 minutes and decanted into a beaker. A couple of boiling stones were added and a steam bath was used to evaporate away the ether from the diphenylmethanol product. The melted product was removed from steam bath and cooled. The crude solid from hexanes was recrystallized and the final product was collected using vacuum filtration, which was then set in aside to dry for a week. A week later, the product was weighed and melting point and an IR spectrum was obtained. (Figure 1. 1 Reflux Apparatus) Results IR Spectroscopy | Expected Absorption Wavenumbers (cm-1)| Observed Absorption Wavenumbers (cm-1)| Conc. Alcohols phenols| 3200-3550| 3383. 14| Aromatic Ring| 1500 1600| 1494. 26| C-H (sp3)| 2800-3000| ~3020-3050| Note the lack of a carbonyl absorption between 1680-1750 Theoretical Yield (Equation 1) Equation 1. Mol of Limiting Reagent*Limiting ReagentSynthesized Product*mol weight product .0302 mol Benzophenone X1 Mol Benzophenone1 Mol Diphenylmethanol X 184. 23gmolDiphenylmethanol =5. 56 g Diphenylmethanol Equation 2 Percent Yield (Equation 2) Percent Yield=Mass Actual Actual YieldMass Theoretical Yield*100 Percent Yield=3. 23 grams5. 56*100=58. 09% Melting Point of Diephenylmethanol| Literature | 65-67 °C| Actual| 61-63. 1  °C| Discussion The carbon-oxygen double bond was broken when a hydride ion donated from NaBH4 attacked the carbon within the carbonyl functional group. The hydride ion was strongly attracted to the carbon due to its partial positive charge produced by the oxygen atoms electron withdrawing ability. The negatively charged oxygen atom was then readily protonated in the presence of the non-nucleophilic HCL acid. Infrared spectroscopy (IR) produced absorption peaks within the expected values verifying the synthesis of the expected product: there was a broad absorption peak at 3383. 14 wavenumbers indicative of a hydroxyl group; peaks around ~3020-3050 wavenumbers corresponding with the newly formed sp3 C-H bonded orbital; and a peak at 1494. 6 wavenumbers proving the retention of the phenol rings (Experimental spectra). Furthermore, an absorption peak at approximately 1680-1750 wavenumbers corresponding with carbonyl functional groups was no longer present (Benzophenone spectra). The percent yield was relatively high at 58. 09%. The observed melting point was 4-3. 9 ? C lower than expected 65-67 ? C range demonstrating the sample did con tain a level of purity. The low melting point indicates that atmospheric pressure in the laboratory as well as a moderate degree of impurities contributed to a lower BLANK. Diethyl ether was used during the extraction process and was evaporated by heating on a steam bath. Because the product was solvated in ether, and shares a melting point within a close proximity to ethers boiling point, it melted during the evaporation process -causing a loss of product. After the reaction is complete, excess sodium borohydride is decomposed by acidifying the reaction mixture (slowly and while stirring) using aqueous HCl. Hydrogen gas is evolved during this process as the excess sodium borohydride decomposes. In terms of solvent choice, the solubility of sodium borohydride in water is greater in water (25-88. 5 g/100g of solvent) than in methanol (16. 4 g/100g of solvent). However, the reaction of benzophenone with water poses a problem. Benzophenone is a pure hydrocarbon that is very insoluble in water. In turn, compromising and using methanol as the solvent is favorable although it sacrifices product. NaBH4 Solubility in Water vs Methanol| Solvent| Temperature  °C | Solubility (g/100g of Solvent | H2O| 0| 25. 0| | 25| 55. 0| | 60| 88. 5| MeOH| 20| 16. 4| References Carbonyl Reactivity.   Michigan State University :: Department of Chemistry. Web. 13. Nov. 2011. http://www2. chemistry. msu. edu/faculty/reusch/VirtTxtJml/aldket1. htm. Computers in Chemical Education (CCE) Newsletter. Web. 13 Nov. 2011. http://orgchem. colorado. edu/CCCE/frame/images/handbook. pdf. http://www. pitt. edu/~bandik/organicweb/exp11text. html Huston, Erica. Sodium Borohydride Reduction: Diphenylmethanol from Benzophenone. Organic Chemistry I Laboratory Manual. Plymouth: Hayden-McNeil, 2012. 92. Print. Padias, Anne B. Making the Connections? A How-To Guide for Organic Chemistry Lab Techniques. 2nd ed. Plymouth, MI: Hayden McNeil, 2011. Print. Stereospecific Reduction of Benzil with Sodium Borohydride; Determination of the Stereochemistry by NMR Spectroscopy. Web. 13 Nov. 2011. http://www. enc. edu/~timothy. t. wooster/courses/CH322/Lab/2-28-3-14%20Oxidation%20Reduction. pdf. The Organic Chemistry Laboratory Web Pages UW Madison.   Home | UW Madison Department of Chemistry. Web. 13 Nov. 2011. http://www. chem. wisc. edu/areas/organic/orglab/tech/reflux. htm. Vollhardt, K. Peter C. , and Neil Eric Schore. Organic Chemistry: Structure and Function. New York: W. H. Freeman, 2011. Print. http://www. pitt. edu/~cedar. [ 2 ]. Carbonyl Reactivity.   Michigan State University :: Department of Chemistry. Web. 13. Nov. 2011. . [ 3 ]. Stereospecific Reduction of Benzil with Sodium Borohydride; Determination of the Stereochemistry by NMR Spectroscopy. Web. 13 Nov. 2011. . [ 4 ]. Padias, Anne B. Making the Connections? : A How-To Guide for Organic Chemistry Lab Techniques. 2nd ed. Plymouth, MI: Hayden McNeil, 2011. Print. [ 5 ]. The Organic Chemistry Laboratory Web Pages UW Madison.   Home | UW Madison Department of Chemistry. Web. 13 Nov. 2011. . [ 6 ]. Computers in Chemical Education (CCE) Newsletter. Web. 13 Nov. 2011. . [ 7 ]. Huston, Erica. Sodium Borohydride Reduction: Diphenylmethanol from Benzophenone. Organic Chemistry I Laboratory Manual. Plymouth: Hayden- McNeil, 2012. 92. Print. [ 8 ]. http://fsl. ne. uiuc. edu/Project%20Presentation/fuel%20cell%20project_files/July%20workshop%20presentations/uiuc-talk-25July2005. pdf

Thursday, March 19, 2020

Compare & Contrast essay about technologies essays

Compare & Contrast essay about technologies essays Email, Cell phones, Internet, Television, Pagers, and Computers is the way of the future, or is it now trademarks of everyday life? Today in 2002 peoples lives seem so interconnected with the ways that technology has been able to bridge the gap in communications. Fifty years ago, you had limited options, sending mail from the post office (which today has been labeled "snail mail") or calling them. We now have a wide variety of communication devices accessible to us so that we are never out of touch. Multimedia, Television, and internet bring into our homes images of violence, sex, ideals, and everything that is out there in the world. One of the current issues that has been approached is "Is there to much information accessible to us?" Since we are overwhelmed with so much information, scenes of sex, violence, and also by ways of communication, we are slowly loosing the sensors of right and wrong, everything is becoming almost like a video game. Compared to fifty years ago, America today is facing a whole new set of problems that was not even a consideration or a thought of Americans of yesteryear. Morals, communication, societys beliefs, trends, value of life, and even workplace environments are worlds apart from our past, and all this within a short span of time. We do not reflect the utopia that people from 1952 may have imagined for us with flying cars, ray guns, and life in space. We are a generation caught up in the world of high speed information and instant everything, even instant life (cloning and genetic research). The world of communication is so egregious; we dont know what to do. From email, to computers, to chat rooms; its how people meet and interact with each other now. These so called Internet cafes" how does this affect people? Are people more open today about meeting people than they were 50 yea ...

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

The Best Way to Write an Outline for a Compare and Contrast Essay

The Best Way to Write an Outline for a Compare and Contrast Essay The Best Way to Write an Outline for a Compare and Contrast Essay Nowadays written assignments are an important part of everyday life not depending whether you are a student or a professional writer. That is why being able to complete a great essay not only influences your grades but also your salary and professional success. An essay is the most common written assignment, which aims to research, analyze and evaluate a certain issue or matter. Depending on the type of skills a tutor wants to check, there are multiple essay types: argumentative, narrative, compare and contrast essays, and much more. Not depending on the type of essay you are going to complete, half of the success depends on its proper structure or an outline. That is why we have created this article and gathered all the necessary information you need to know on an essay outline. Outline of a compare and contrast essay As you understand from its name, a compare and contrast essay is a paper, which compares and contrasts certain subjects, matters or even events. Aims of this task include: To show that one matter is better than another; To describe misunderstandings; To provide a fresh outlook on the subject; To give the reader information on a certain topic; To work with credible and scholarly sources, and provide arguments on the topic. Depending on your goals, subjects and aspirations, there are two methods to create a proper outline for your paper. Organizing by criteria This pattern is also known as a point-by-point method and is used to complete an outline, when the items you compare are alike or when you need to evaluate only a couple of points. Here is a regular pattern, which is used to create a point-by-point outline: Here you should provide a thesis statement and introduce the reader to the matters that will be compared; Paragraphs, for example 1,2 and 3. Always start with a topic sentence and then write details to support your idea, argument or fact. Every paragraph should have its own topic sentence; Summarize thoughts, presented in the paper and write why your comparison and contrast are important. If possible, make prognosis for the future. Organizing by items This type of outline organization is sometimes called a block method and is applied, when described issues are completely different or you have a big number of criteria to discuss. In such cases a point-by-point method doesn’t work at all and can be considered absolutely ineffective. The main aim of such a method is to make the paper readable, so here is how an outline of such compare and contrast essay looks like: As usual, you need to give a general look at the subject and provide a thesis statement; Their number may differ depending on the quantity of arguments you need to discuss. Each paragraph should start with an item and continue with a number of points this item consists of; Give a summary of your topic and make predictions for the future, explaining how your comparison or contrast may influence the industry. Another way of structuring an essay, using the block method, is to make two separate paragraphs: one for comparison and one of contrasts. Once you have chosen a pattern to use, you can start with completing the essay. Introduction Introduction section is usually the same, not depending whether you are writing a descriptive or a compare and contrast essay.   In this section, you need to give the reader an overall idea of your paper and discussed matters. Try to introduce the audience to the items, events or definitions you are going to compare and contrast. Here are the features of an introduction section: Always start with the hook. It will intrigue the reader and will make him go on reading. Depending on the subject, it can be a joke, a quote or a question you are going to examine; Write down the subjects you are going to compare and contrast. It won’t sound right if you simply start describing similarities and differences of the subjects, so it is necessary to give their general definition and your motives; Complete a thesis statement. You need to close your introduction with a sentence or two on the main aim of the whole paper. Be brief and give only relevant information on the topic, without watery and meaningless texts. Once your introduction is ready, you can start working on body paragraphs. Body paragraphs There are no restrictions on how many paragraphs your main section should contain. Everything depends on the quantity of issues and points you want to discuss in your essay. For example, two criteria will require two paragraphs, three criteria – three, and so on.   In some cases, you will be given a certain amount of such issues to discuss but most of the times you will need to choose them yourself depending on the main goal of your essay. If you don’t know how many criteria to include, just take a blank piece of paper and write down all the similarities and differences of the issue. Then choose those, which you want to discuss. However, you should limit such items to maximum three or four not to bore the reader and to be able to concentrate on a specific topic. Here are the questions, which may help you to decide which criteria are important for your work and which are not necessary at all: Does it have anything to do with the subject I am studying? What matters am I given? What will make my essay interesting and useful? What is relevant to my course? Not depending on the issue you are studying, you need to start every body paragraph with a topic sentence. It aims to give a reader information on the thing, matter or event you want to compare or contrast. Then you need to give all the details on your research, backing with relevant information and all the necessary data. Remember that every issue you compare and contrast, should not only contain your personal opinion but also be backed with academic papers, researches and various credible sources. Moreover, you should always stay objective and give a side-glance on all the similarities and differences of the subject. It is not right to give the reader a chance to understand what side you are on. In addition, it will be useful to add connections to the text to make it smooth and readable. For example: Likewise, both, thus, nevertheless, compared to, same as, as well as, however, in contrast and so on. Conclusions When you have completed an introductory section and body paragraphs, you will find it quite simple to complete your conclusions, as you already know what to write about. However, there are still some secrets you need to keep in mind: Summarize key points. Start your conclusions with rephrasing all the key points you have learned throughout your essay. They need to correspond with your body paragraphs; Give an evaluation. It is important to make predictions and analyze what you have learned. You can also provide different solutions depending on the topic you choose; Importance of the research. It is necessary not only to explain why your topic is important but also to give the reader a chance to see why a compare and contrast essay gives a full understanding of your topic. When writing is completed Take a deep breath and congratulate yourself with completing such a difficult assignment. However, don’t rush to your tutor to deliver it, as there are a few things you need to do before submitting it. Spend some time on editing and proofreading your essay to make sure it has no mistakes or unnecessary parts. Some students think that typos are not important and neglect this important stage, willing to save time. However, the reader will easily distract from your essay, when seeing mistakes in the text and it may result in lower grades. Read your essay over and over again to make sure there are no grammar or lexical mistakes in the text. You can feel the temptation of downloading a software to check your mistakes or do it online but it will do you no good, because such programs don’t have a critical approach. Yes, you can use them as the first step but afterwards you need to check everything yourself. A great solution is to ask your relatives or friends to read your compare and contrast essay to see whether there are some mistakes left. Finally, complete references if you have forgotten about them and submit the essay to your professor! Closing thoughts A compare and contrast essay is more than just a paper, which aims to evaluate a certain subject. Here you need to analyze two different items, events or matters and back everything with credible data. We hope that our article helped you to understand how to complete such a difficult task and you won’t experience any difficulties, when completing it. Just follow our guidelines step by step and you will definitely write an outstanding compare and contrast essay.